4. How does student achievement vary, if at all, in relationship to other elements of
the school library program?
5. What combination of school library media program factors, if any, contributes to
a positive significant correlation with student achievement?
6. If student achievement significantly correlates with school library staff services,
how does the level of these services vary, if at all, in relationship to certificated
library staffing levels?
7. If student achievement significantly correlates with school library staff services,
how does the level of these services vary, if at all, in relationship to overall library
These questions are explored at grades four, eight and eleven-- one grade each from elementary,
middle school and high school, consistent with other studies of this type. Student achievement is
measured through school-level mean scaled scores from California's Standardized Testing and
Reporting (STAR) tests.
Significance of the Problem
Results from this study may be used by school districts, library media specialists and
school library education programs in California as a baseline for examining the complex
relationship between school library programs and student achievement and may provide some
indications about the impact staffing levels have on the quality of school library programs and on
student achievement. Such a baseline may provide researchers and library media specialists
useful information about where to focus future research, whether in terms of best practice or
areas for improvement related to school library media programs. Results from this study may
also prove valuable to school and district officials in deciding how to allocate resources to school
Achterman, Douglas L. Haves, Halves, and Have-Nots: School Libraries and Student Achievement in California. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9800/. Accessed December 21, 2013.