tions of the Union Catalog Division became the responsibility of the newly
reorganized Catalog Publication Division, which created the Microform Publications
Unit to publish Newspapers on Microfilm, the National Register of
Microform Masters, and the Microfilming Clearing House Bulletin. In 1982,
the Division was again reorganized as the Catalog Management and Publication
Scope. One of the problems facing contributors to any bibliography of newspapers
is the definition of a newspaper. The second and third editions of
Newspapers on Microfilm stated that a publication was recognized as a newspaper
if it appeared in Winifred Gregory's Union List of Newspapers; the
later editions added "Brigham's History and Bibliography of American Newspapers,
1690-1820, The Newspaper Press Directory [London], and similar
guides." The Photoduplication Service of the Library of Congress accepts the
definition of a newspaper as "any periodical publication, put on sale to the
general public, which serves as an initial source of written news of current
events" (Preface, Specifications for the Microfilming of Newspapers in the
Library of Congress, Washington, 1972). In its 1971 "Temporary Instructions
for Reporting to Newspapers on Microfilm," the Catalog Publication Division
listed a number of criteria for reporting to the present edition, among
which were characteristics of format: "a newspaper is a serial which . . .
usually does not have a cover, and is published at least once a month in a
format of not less than four columns of type per page."
Ultimately, the determination of what constitutes a newspaper must be
made by the reporting institution. When a particular question does arise, the
Library's editors will accept a publication as a newspaper if it is listed by
Brigham or Gregory, appears in the newspaper directories of Rowell or Ayer
up to 1929, or is described in Ayer's Directory of Newspapers and Periodicals
since 1930 as having a depth of more than 10 inches (140 agate lines) and a
format of at least four columns. This bibliography thus includes religious,
collegiate, labor, and other special-interest papers that were excluded in
Newspapers on Microfilm.
Entries. A second problem arises in describing the name of a newspaper.
Some reports tend to use the popular name instead of the official name-Star
rather than Newton Evening Star, for example. Many newspapers themselves
contribute to the confusion by placing keywords-Newton or Evening-in
small type on separate lines or within banners or other words, so that the
reader perceives only the large words-The Star-and misses the "Newton"
and "Evening" descriptors. Ayer's Directory omits all parts of a title which
refer to the city of publication or the periodicity of the paper (daily, weekly,
evening, etc.), so that again the Newton Evening Star appears simply as Star.
For the present publication two criteria have been employed in determining
the standard name of a newspaper: 1) unless contrary information is available,
the listing in Brigham or Gregory is used; 2) the name reported to the Library
of Congress is accepted in the absence of such a listing, unless experience with
the reporting institution indicates that, for example, the name of the city
of publication is always omitted in their reports. In such a case the name
of the city may be added to the title reported, on the supposition that
the longer title is more accurate. When the reporting institution prefixes
every title with the name of the city, it is more difficult, of course, to decide
that the city name may not be a part of the true title. The reader is therefore
cautioned that he should be flexible in searching this bibliography for titles.
Library of Congress. Catalog Management and Publication Division. Library of Congress Catalogs: Newspapers in Microform, United States, 1948-1983, Volume 1 A-O. Washington, D. C.. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc9465/. Accessed September 21, 2014.