to PL83-480 was PL74-320, an amendment passed in 1935 of the Agri-
cultural Adjustment Act of 1933 (Wallerstein 1980; Haroldsen 1962),
which was designed to deal with famine and disaster. In 1949, this was
further modified,authorizing the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC)
to "make available ... food commodities...to private welfare organiza-
tions for the assistance of needy persons outside tho United States"
(Agency for International Development 1979: 5).
Public Law 480 is (and has since been) the primary instrument by
which the United States government has allocated fo d aid to the rest
of the world, primarily the Third World. The policy goals and admini-
stration, as well as the structure of the Act, have undergone numerous
changes and/or modifications over the last 27 years. In 1961, at the
insistence of Senator Hubert H. Humphrey and President Eisenhower,
PL-480 was officially renamed "Food for Peace." Also, the previously
significant humanitarian aims were conspicuously omitted from the 1954
legislation (see the above description), and, they wre not written into
the bill until 1966.
In 1966, under the Johnson administration, PL-480 underwent a
major facelift in which the surplus disposal concept was eliminated
and "self-help" with respect to recipient countries was emphasized.
This probably resulted because the quantities of available agricultural
commodities were significantly lower than in previous years due to a
greater demand for these goods in competitive commercial markets.
Originally, there were four different "titles" which were rewritten
in 1966 and combined into only two. Title I (I and IV), very briefly,
can be summarized as "sales"; that is, certain agricultural commodities,
Rodeheaver, Daniel Gilbert, 1954-; Bates, Frederick L. & Murphy, Arthur D. Malnutrition And Food Aid Programs: A Case Study From Guatemala. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84342/. Accessed March 9, 2014.