Retreating Glaciers of the Himalayas: A Case Study of Gangotri Glacier Using 1990-2009 Satellite Images

pp = unitless planetary reflectance;
d = earth-sun distance in astronomical units;
ESUNX = mean solar exatmospheric units;
OS = solar zenith angle in degree.
Based on calibrated images, spectral properties of glacial and non-glacial features were then
derived to discriminate different features in the Gangotry Glacier (Figure 7).

Figure 7. Spectral curved derived from different features.

Following image calibration and spectral curve analysis, glacial features were extracted from
high resolution IKONOS images, and change detection and quantification using multi-temporal
Landsat TM images acquired between 1990 and 2009 were carried out.
4. Results and Discussion
The results are shown in the following figures, and glacial retreating distances and rates are
listed in Table 1.

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Ding, Jennifer & Dong, Pinliang. Retreating Glaciers of the Himalayas: A Case Study of Gangotri Glacier Using 1990-2009 Satellite Images. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84326/. Accessed July 13, 2014.