Figure 6. 90-m resolution digital elevation model (DEM) acquired by the Space Shuttle
Endeavour during the Space Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) in 2000.
Before Landsat TM images can be digitally processed, they need to be calibrated using the
following equations to convert digital numbers (DN) into radiance and reflectance. These
conversions ensure that images acquired on different dates can be compared with one another
(L max,- L min) +min
L, = Qcal + L min 2
(=r * L *d2)
p cos 0B
L = spectral radiance at sensor's aperture in W/(m2* sr*pm);
Qcai = quantized calibrated pixel value in DNs;
Qcalmax= maximum quantized calibrated pixel value (DN = 255) corresponding to
Lmaxx = spectral radiance that is scaled to Qcalmax in W/(m2*sr*pm);
Lminx = spectral radiance that is scaled to Qcalmin in W/(m2*sr*pm);
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Ding, Jennifer & Dong, Pinliang. Retreating Glaciers of the Himalayas: A Case Study of Gangotri Glacier Using 1990-2009 Satellite Images. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84326/. Accessed June 25, 2016.