Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952

22 REPORT ON EXPERIMENT STATIONS, 1952
deep 300 pounds. Such information enables farmers to develop flexible
cropping systems and to select crops that will make best use of
water and soil under prevailing moisture conditions.
Wide-scale application of experimental results obtained by the
Texas station, in using chemicals to control grasses and weeds in cotton
may result in a saving of 10 to 15 million dollars in annual hand
labor costs in producing cotton in Texas. Tests showed that hand
hoeing and regular cultivation of the row was more expensive than
any system that included the use of chemicals. Six hoeings were
needed to keep the rows clean and cost $13.30 per acre in hand labor
where no chemical was used. Application of dinitro preemergence
chemical at planting and two postemergence oilings 7 days apart after
the cotton was 3% inches tall, reduced hand hoeing costs to $3.29 per
acre. Chemical treatments controlled 97 percent of the Johnson and
annual grass seedlings; hand hoeing in this system was practically
limited to scattered spots of established Johnson grass in the row.
Regular sweep cultivation was used in all systems to keep the middles
clean. The Mississippi station (coop. USDA), Louisiana, Alabama,
and other stations have also recommended definite-precautions to be
followed in using chemicals for weed control in cotton, to minimize
hand hoeing and cultivation.
Flax
Marine, a new seed flax selected by the North Dakota station (coop.
USDA), is immune from North American races of flax rust and has
satisfactory wilt resistance. It has yielded well at most stations where
tested in the North Central region.
Punjab 53, a new seed flax developed by the California station,
produces 48.6 bushels per acre, and has outyielded other wilt-resistant
varieties. Its oil content tests at 40.5 percent, 1 percent higher than
the older high-yielding Punjab varieties.
Contrary to opinion in the main flax-growing area of the Northwest,
the North Dakota station finds that flax is not a heavy mineral
feeder and does not deplete soil excessively. The average flax crop
removes smaller quantities of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and
sulfur than do crops of wheat, oats, or barley. Although flax does
remove more calcium than the other crops, calcium is not a limiting
factor of crop production in the Northwest.
Peanuts
Field germination of seed is an important factor in obtaining
profitable stands of peanuts. The Alabama station obtained best germination
from seed grown in fertile and well-watered soil, cured to
6-percent kernel moisture under conditions that limit damage to 2
percent or less, and stored in the shell at below 35 C. and a relative
humidity that did not permit kernel moisture to exceed 6 percent.
Danger from loss in field drying of peanuts has been reduced by the
North Carolina station (coop. USDA) by windrowing with a diggershaker,
loading after 2 to 12 days with a standard-type hay loader,
and artificially drying with forced warm air before picking. Peanuts
harvested in this manner showed a maximum damage of 19 percent of

U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Research Administration. Office of Experiment Stations. Report on the Agricultural Experiment Stations, 1952. Washington, D. C.. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5990/. Accessed November 24, 2014.