Interfacial Electrochemistry of Metal Nanoparticles Formation on Diamond and Copper Electroplating on Ruthenium Surface

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An extremely facile and novel method called spontaneous deposition, to deposit noble metal nanoparticles on a most stable form of carbon (C) i.e. diamond is presented. Nanometer sized particles of such metals as platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), gold (Au), copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) could be deposited on boron-doped (B-doped) polycrystalline diamond films grown on silicon (Si) substrates, by simply immersing the diamond/Si sample in hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution containing ions of the corresponding metal. The electrons for the reduction of metal ions came from the Si back substrate. The diamond/Si interfacial ohmic contact was of paramount importance to the observation of the spontaneous deposition process. The metal/diamond (M/C) surfaces were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD). The morphology (i.e. size and distribution) of metal nanoparticles deposits could be controlled by adjusting the metal ion concentration, HF concentration and deposition time. XRD data indicate the presence of textured and strained crystal lattices of Pd for different Pd/C morphologies, which seem to influence the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde (HCHO). The sensitivity of electrocatalytic reactions to surface crystal structure implies that M/C could be fabricated for specific electrocatalytic applications. The research also presents electroplating of Cu on ruthenium (Ru), which a priori is a promising barrier material for Cu interconnects in the sub 0.13 μm generation integrated circuits (ICs). Cu plates on Ru with over 90% efficiency. The electrochemical nucleation and growth studies using the potentiostatic current transient method showed a predominantly progressive nucleation of Cu on Ru. This was also supported by SEM imaging, which showed that continuous thin films of Cu (ca. 400 Å) with excellent conformity could be plated over Ru without dendrite formation. Scotch tape peel tests and SEM on Cu/Ru samples both at room temperature (RT) and after annealing at 800 oC, showed no sign of delamination of the Cu film from Ru indicating strong adhesion. XRD patterns from Cu/Ru samples at RT through 800 oC indicated Cu in its characteristic face centered cubic (fcc) form with (111) phase dominating. Most importantly no new XRD peak emerged, even after annealing to 800 oC showing Cu and Ru did not interact much. The excellent adhesion and lack of metallurgical interactions between Cu and Ru underscored the potential application of Ru as a new Cu diffusion barrier in the next generation ICs.

Creator(s): Arunagiri, Tiruchirapalli Natarajan
Creation Date: May 2003
Partner(s):
UNT Libraries
Collection(s):
UNT Theses and Dissertations
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Total Uses: 374
Past 30 days: 16
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Publisher Info:
Publisher Name: University of North Texas
Place of Publication: Denton, Texas
Date(s):
  • Creation: May 2003
  • Digitized: August 13, 2003
Description:

An extremely facile and novel method called spontaneous deposition, to deposit noble metal nanoparticles on a most stable form of carbon (C) i.e. diamond is presented. Nanometer sized particles of such metals as platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), gold (Au), copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) could be deposited on boron-doped (B-doped) polycrystalline diamond films grown on silicon (Si) substrates, by simply immersing the diamond/Si sample in hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution containing ions of the corresponding metal. The electrons for the reduction of metal ions came from the Si back substrate. The diamond/Si interfacial ohmic contact was of paramount importance to the observation of the spontaneous deposition process. The metal/diamond (M/C) surfaces were investigated using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffractometry (XRD). The morphology (i.e. size and distribution) of metal nanoparticles deposits could be controlled by adjusting the metal ion concentration, HF concentration and deposition time. XRD data indicate the presence of textured and strained crystal lattices of Pd for different Pd/C morphologies, which seem to influence the electrocatalytic oxidation of formaldehyde (HCHO). The sensitivity of electrocatalytic reactions to surface crystal structure implies that M/C could be fabricated for specific electrocatalytic applications. The research also presents electroplating of Cu on ruthenium (Ru), which a priori is a promising barrier material for Cu interconnects in the sub 0.13 μm generation integrated circuits (ICs). Cu plates on Ru with over 90% efficiency. The electrochemical nucleation and growth studies using the potentiostatic current transient method showed a predominantly progressive nucleation of Cu on Ru. This was also supported by SEM imaging, which showed that continuous thin films of Cu (ca. 400 Å) with excellent conformity could be plated over Ru without dendrite formation. Scotch tape peel tests and SEM on Cu/Ru samples both at room temperature (RT) and after annealing at 800 oC, showed no sign of delamination of the Cu film from Ru indicating strong adhesion. XRD patterns from Cu/Ru samples at RT through 800 oC indicated Cu in its characteristic face centered cubic (fcc) form with (111) phase dominating. Most importantly no new XRD peak emerged, even after annealing to 800 oC showing Cu and Ru did not interact much. The excellent adhesion and lack of metallurgical interactions between Cu and Ru underscored the potential application of Ru as a new Cu diffusion barrier in the next generation ICs.

Degree:
Level: Doctoral
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Subject(s):
Keyword(s): Diamond | noble metals | copper | interconnects | diffusion barrier
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Partner:
UNT Libraries
Collection:
UNT Theses and Dissertations
Identifier:
  • OCLC: 53163758 |
  • ARK: ark:/67531/metadc5526
Resource Type: Thesis or Dissertation
Format: Text
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Access: Use restricted to UNT Community (strictly enforced)
License: Copyright
Holder: Armstrong, Earl E.
Statement: Copyright is held by the author, unless otherwise noted. All rights reserved.