The students' rating of their reading and writing skills were positively correlated (r = .74,
p < .01) as might be expected with the strong relationship between reading and writing in
literacy. However, neither the students' rating of their reading skills (r = -.20, p =.16) nor their
rating of their writing skills (r = -.12, p = .41) were correlated to their overall total composition
Comfort with Speaking and Writing
Questions 2 through 4 of the Student Information Form required students to use a Likert-
like scale of 0 to 4 to indicate their comfort with various language activities, where 0 indicated
Not at all comfortable and 4 was Extremely comfortable. For Question 2: How comfortable are
you with speaking in Spanish, the data indicated that the students in the control group were
somewhat comfortable with their speaking abilities (M= 1.96) as were the students in the
experimental group (M= 1.65). Regarding Question 3: How comfortable are you with writing in
English, both the control and experimental group stated that they were extremely comfortable
with this skill (M = 3.88). This is compared to Question 4 regarding comfort with writing in
Spanish in which the control (M= 2.15) and the experimental (M= 2.12) both said that they
were only somewhat comfortable writing in Spanish.
In "Classroom Assessment of CALL" Romin-Odio and Hartlaub (2003) recommend
approaches to CALL research based on recent trends and more complex statistical analyses.
They state that "General linear models, including both ANOVA and regression models, are used
to investigate not only possible main effects of isolated factors, but also relationships between
factors" (p. 595). All statistical analyses were conducted using the SPSS Statistical Package for
Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/. Accessed October 1, 2016.