Looking first at receptive skills, the mean for students in the experimental group for
listening was M= 3.69 (intermediate mid level), and the mean for self-rated reading ability was
M= 3.85 (upper intermediate mid level). The mean for the control group for listening ability was
M= 3.77 (in the intermediate mid level), and reading ability was M= 4.65 (intermediate high
Continuing with the productive skills, the mean for students in the experimental group
was M= 3.00 for speaking ability (intermediate mid level), and their writing ability as M= 3.23
(also in the intermediate mid level). The control group self-rated speaking ability as M= 3.27
(intermediate mid level) and writing ability as M= 3.88 (upper intermediate mid level). Full
explanations of levels are presented in Appendix F.
Analysis of Variance for Student Rating of Listening Skills by Group
Source df Sum of Squares Mean Squares F p
Between 1 0.09 0.08 .04 .85
Within 50 100.15 2.00
Total 51 100.23
There was not a statistically significant difference between the two groups for listening,
F(1, 50) = .04,p = .85, and speaking, F(1, 50)= .80,p = .38 (Table 5 and Table 6). However,
reading F(1, 50) = 4.36, p = .04 and writing F(1, 50) = 4.26, p <.05 showed statistically
significant differences (Table 7 and Table 8).
Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/. Accessed February 13, 2016.