Pretest Composition 1
An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the hypothesis that the means of the
two groups were not significantly different on Composition 1. ANOVA is robust to departures
from normality, and this sample population had comparable ranges and means, with a few
extreme values deemed not to be outliers. A homogeneity of variances test was employed, and
the Levene statistic (p = .01) confirmed rejection of the null hypothesis that the variances are
equal. ANOVA is robust to this violation when the groups are of equal or near equal size. In this
study the control and experimental groups are both n = 26. For the ANOVA on Composition 1,
the significance level wasp = .16, indicating that there was no statistically significant difference
in the performance of the two classes on Composition 1. This test was intended to give additional
assurance as to the comparability of the two groups in terms of composition ability.
Self-rating of Language Skills
The results from the Student Information Sheet (Appendix F) provided perceptions from
students regarding their abilities in Spanish, the target language, as well as their comfort with
speaking and writing. Question 1 asked students to rate their ability level in Spanish for listening,
speaking, reading and writing based on modifications of the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines. To
determine average student self-rating of skills, "Novice High" was coded as 1 and "Superior"
was coded as 8.
Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/. Accessed May 29, 2015.