Looking at group demographics (Table 2) revealed no selection bias prior to participation
in the study. The groups were fairly well matched on age, gender, and race. Of the original thirty
participants in the control group, three students did not complete the course and one doctoral
student (in English) was considered unlike the other participants in terms of writing ability and
was omitted from the study. Thus, the control group ultimately included 14 females and 12 males
with 53.8% between the ages of 16 and 20 and 46.2 % in the category of ages 21 to 25 (Table 2).
In the experimental group, four students did not complete the course resulting in an n of
26 for the experimental group. There were 14 females and 12 males with 30.8% between the
ages of 16 to 20, 61.5 % ages 21 to 25, and 7.7% from ages 26 to 30 (Table 2).
Major and Minor Areas of Study
Undergraduate major and minor areas of study varied greatly, but in the control group
there was one Spanish major and six Spanish minors at the beginning of the course. At the end of
the course there were four more students that expressed an interest in or had declared a minor in
Spanish, but one student dropped the Spanish minor and another had initially listed Spanish as a
minor went to "possibly Spanish." In the experimental group, there was one Spanish major at the
beginning of the course and one who listed Spanish as a major with a question mark. The latter
definitively stated being a major by the end of the course. There were seven Spanish minors in
the experimental group. The number stayed the same at the end of the semester with one student
dropping the minor and another adding.
Demographic data also included the student's classification in school by the traditional
rankings of freshman, sophomore, junior and senior. There were no freshman students in either
Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/. Accessed September 3, 2015.