Students for the study were not randomly selected; the only randomization of the
population was due to the students' self-selection into the researcher's classes. The sample size
was limited to one entire class section as a control and one as the experimental treatment group
(each n = 30). While this can be considered a convenience sample, having the same instructor for
both sections has the advantage of controlling for instructor effects, often stated to be a threat to
internal validity. Group characteristics such as gender, majors/minors, previous course grades,
comfort with writing, experience with technology, and pretest scores on compositions were
compared to note any significant differences between groups.
Writing time allotted for composition in research studies (as in timed writings for
placement and assessment) may be more restrictive in most cases for pre-writing, planning and
actual writing than in a classroom setting, but it can also be comparable to in-class exam
situations (i.e., students have limited time to complete an essay on a test instead of a homework
assignment or take-home composition with unlimited time). There is not conclusive evidence
that the time allowed seriously affects the reliability of scores (Jacobs et al., 1981). Students
were allowed a minimum of thirty minutes for writing compositions, a time-limit imposition that
is long enough to provide an adequate sample of writing behavior (Jacobs et al., 1981).
Understanding the impact of technology-enhanced language learning on students'
composition process and product is important to the successful integration of technology into the
foreign language curriculum. It is also useful to comprehend the perceptions and attitudes of
students using technology to write. This study provided insights into the effects of grammar and
vocabulary student practice on composition. The results of this data analysis are discussed in
depth in Chapter 4.
Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/. Accessed September 30, 2016.