H-0 There is a significant difference in the Grammar/Language Use subscale score of
students who have computer grammar practice and those who do not.
The third research question-what composition elements available through the writing
assistant program (Atajo) do students access most?-is exploratory in nature. The researcher
hypothesized that students would make use of all databases with the dictionary and grammar
being the most frequently consulted and this pattern decreasing over time. The researcher also
hypothesized that the students that had regular grammar and vocabulary practice on Spanish
Partner would make fewer grammar inquiries to Atajo than the control group. Stated in the null:
H-0 There is a significant difference over time in the use of composition reference aids in
The fourth research question (What is the relationship between the number and type of
help requests to Atajo and composition quality and quantity?) is correlational and exploratory in
nature, and the final research question (What are students' opinions of the usefulness of
technology for composing in L2?) elicits the opinions of the students and is more qualitative in
nature; thus, there is no researcher hypothesis for either question.
The study was limited to the examination of the effects of two software programs
provided by the foreign language department on the composition performance of intermediate
level Spanish students. Since features of software programs are unique, care should be exercised
in generalizing the results to the use of other grammar practice programs and technology-
enhanced writing assistants designed to improve composition.
Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/. Accessed September 1, 2015.