To what extent has this course helped you to choose appropriate language examples and
visual aids for oral/written presentations?
A similar questionnaire elicited responses of the experimental group to the effectiveness of the
technology to achieve the same goals for language learning (Appendix N).
Romin-Odio and Hartlaub (2003) recommend approaches to CALL research based on
recent trends and more complex statistical analyses. "General linear models, including both
ANOVA and regression models, are used to investigate not only possible main effects of isolated
factors, but also relationships between factors" (p. 595). All statistical analyses were conducted
in the SPSS Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 12.0 (SPSS, www.spss.com). The
significance level for all tests was set at the .05 level unless otherwise noted. Each research
question will be addressed here. Each research question will be addressed here.
Research question 1: How will the use of a grammar and vocabulary practice software
program (Spanish Partner) affect quantity in L2 students' compositions as measured by the total
number of words per composition?
This research question was the preliminary step in looking at the fluency of the students'
composition with regard to total number of words produced during a given period of time.
Completing a count of words per composition provided the information needed to conduct
repeated measures ANOVA. Repeated measures ANOVA tested the interaction effects or
treatment by occasion (pre-test/post-test). This is graphically represented below in Figure 1.
Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/. Accessed March 27, 2015.