analysis procedures, including analysis of compositions and the statistical tests used to answer
the research questions.
In order to investigate the effects of technology-enhanced language learning on second
language composition, this study was guided by the following research questions:
1. How will scaffolding provided by the use of a grammar and vocabulary practice software
program (Spanish Partner) affect quantity in L2 students' compositions as measured by
the total number of words per composition?
2. How will the systematic use of a grammar practice software program (Spanish Partner)
affect the quality of L2 learners' compositions as measured by total composition score,
and the subscale areas of Content, Organization, Vocabulary, Grammar/Language Use,
and Mechanics (spelling, accentuation, and punctuation)?
3. What composition elements available through the writing assistant program (Atajo) do
students access most?
4. What is the relationship between the number and type of help requests to Atajo and
composition quality and quantity?
5. What are students' opinions of the usefulness of technology for composing in L2?
The overall research design was quasi-experimental and descriptive since there was no
random assignment of subjects (McMillan & Schumacher, 1997). While randomization is often
Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/. Accessed November 29, 2015.