the advent of the computer tremendously changed the possible technology applications in the
classroom. Technology integration in education today can involve an array of technologies
including tutorials, presentation software, interactive multimedia, the Internet and the World
Wide Web, and real-time communication.
With such diversity, proper integration of technology-enhanced language learning is
fundamental to its overall success in improving teaching and learning. Many researchers are
increasingly asking questions about how technology is integrated into educational settings and
how to best match technological capacities with students' learning needs. Researchers and
practitioners alike agree that successful integration involves more than simply introducing a
software program or other innovation to the students in a classroom. Technology integration
must be thoughtfully planned based on the curricular goals and instructional models and many
obstacles exist that must be overcome to effectively integrate technology within the curriculum.
According to Cooley and Johnston (2000), there are eight major factors that have
hindered technology integration in our schools. Some schools overspend on hardware and have
too little software or funds for training teachers. Decisions about hardware and software
purchases may be made with little teacher input, resulting in unused technology. Internet
connections in schools may not be located where teachers can use them. Technology training for
teachers seldom focuses on classroom applications. The use of technology implies the use of new
teaching strategies that actively engage students and rely on collaboration among teachers.
Inadequate technology support and not enough funding for maintenance, repair, and upgrades of
equipment pose additional setbacks. Many teachers resist technology because it doesn't match
their educational philosophy. Finally, school districts' incentive programs may focus on raising
Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/. Accessed December 10, 2013.