that is to say that many times writing is incorporated in the curriculum simply to reinforce
grammar skills. Paulson (1993) found that grammatical knowledge and task focus functioned
independently from one another; that is, both impact writing but without interactions. Students
with high grammatical knowledge received significantly higher scores on holistic measures.
Frantzen (1995) conducted a study with two sections of an intermediate Spanish culture and
conversation course that were supplemented with a daily grammar review and error correction
feedback on written work, with advantages shown for both groups.
Dykstra-Pruim (1995) found that knowledge of grammar rules correlated positively with
writing abilities. In her cross-sectional study, 87 students enrolled in second, third and fourth
semester university-level German classes participated in oral and written tasks as well as a
grammar test to examine interlanguage or developing language. Abilities in various grammar
elements correlated and contrasted differently across the three modes at different levels of
In a further examination of explicit grammar instruction, Pletsch de Garcia (1995/1996)
compared and contrasted a control group (n = 24) in a program with a communicative
methodology modeled on the natural approach; a traditional formal or explicit grammar
instruction group (n = 24) that received explanations and practice producing language (output),
and a group (n = 23) that received processing instruction that attempted to impact the way a
learner perceives and processes input. The pretest/posttest consisted of an aural interpretation
task, a written production task of a cloze paragraph, an oral production task, and a written
composition with guided questions. Focusing on the production and composition task outcomes,
results tend to lend support to the hypothesis that explicit grammar instruction specifically
directed at interpreting input can be beneficial to second language acquisition.
Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/. Accessed April 25, 2015.