Viewing writing in this way places more of an emphasis on writing as an expression of the
students' thoughts and feelings as opposed to writing that reflects specific pre-established
structures (essays, business letter, etc.) The idea that writing could be more than simply
academic began around 1980 (Applebee, 1981), riding on the coattails of the whole language
movement. Teachers began to engage students in the writing process containing the elements of
writing in which "real authors" engage when communicating meaning through the written word.
While highly desirable, this approach compounds writing instruction and requires the devotion of
a considerable amount of time to writing.
As one examines the writing process in the history of writing and composition research,
an appreciation of the complexities of the field results. The writing process is seen alternately as
the teaching or improving of writing and the multiple stages that a writer passes through when
writing. There are a number of theories or models of writing, but the cognitive-process theory of
writing L1 theory by Flower and Hayes (1981) is fundamental and has been further expanded
upon by Hayes (1996) to include cognition and affect. The Flower and Hayes (1981) model is
organized around the components of task environment, the writer's long-term memory, and
writing processes. The concept of the writing process being complex, composed of several
subprocesses requiring a monitor to access the needed information at the right time within the
composition process, is echoed in the model of Bereiter and Scardamalia (1987). Pennington
(1996) also cites several stages of writing such as Prewriting, Drafting, Revising, Editing and
Presenting or Publishing, yet this "model is an idealization since the writing process is neither
structured in stages nor strictly sequential" (p. 11) stressing the recursive nature of writing. The
wealth of L1 and ESL writing and composition research serves as theoretical underpinnings for
instructional practices found in foreign language classrooms.
Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/. Accessed April 23, 2014.