for morphologically complex forms; and 3) by providing forms for monitoring, which in
turn, will be available for acquisition in the output. (p. 58)
Scott (1987/1988) conducted an empirical study of explicit and implicit grammar instruction in
two university level advanced French conversation classes (n = 36) in which students for the
explicit condition heard the rules in French for the given grammatical structure and saw written
examples on the board while the students in the implicit group heard a grammatical structure
repeated frequently in a meaningful context while not being focused on structure. Students were
compared with a written and oral test. While there was no significant difference on the oral
measures, on the written sections of the test the students who had an explicit method of
instruction performed better than those who had an implicit method of instruction.
Lee and VanPatten (1995) posit that traditional approaches to grammar instruction have
mapped out a scope and sequence for grammar learning which reflects the student's progress
through a continuum of learner "control" over grammar which ranges from rote and mechanical
use to meaningful and finally communicative use of grammar. They assert that most traditional
practice does not advance a student beyond the mechanical stage to the final two stages of
meaningful nor communicative.
Within the communicative approach, there is a strong emphasis on oral proficiency and
communication and less so on the other productive skill of writing. Yet research has shown that
writing can actually be a helpful tool for learning and applying grammar and vocabulary in a
meaningful way. In the language acquisition process, students may better construct their
understanding of grammar as they write, reinforcing their language acquisition with their output
(Swain, 1985; Terrell, 1991).
Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/. Accessed February 11, 2016.