communicate simple facts and ideas in a loosely connected series of sentences on topics
of personal interest and social needs, primarily in the present time frame; and express
meaning through vocabulary and basic structures that is comprehensible to those
accustomed to the writing of non-natives. (p. 7)
These benchmarks compel educators to include writing in meaningful ways in the curriculum.
Second Language Acquisition
If National Standards and ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines provide the foundation for
foreign language curriculum and instruction, the area of second language acquisition research
further describes instructional approaches and foreign language methodology. Bardovi-Harlig's
(1997) recent definition of the parameters of second language acquisition includes all age ranges
from child to adult learners.
The study of language acquisition has interpreted language in a broad sense, beyond
pedagogical interpretations of the notion of grammar. Thus, language acquisition research
addresses not only the acquisition of morphology and syntax (which are typically thought
of as comprising grammar from a pedagogical perspective), but also phonology
(pronunciation), lexicon (vocabulary), and semantics (meaning). In addition, pragmatics
(language use) is often studied as is the construction and organization of conversation and
writing. (p. 19)
In essence, language acquisition research now centers on all elements of communication for
learners (Bardovi-Harlig & Hartford, 1997; Hinkel & Fotos, 2002), and thus it is learner
processes and products along with perceptions of learners that become central when studying
language acquisition, both receptive and productive.
Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/. Accessed April 18, 2014.