we had cleverly managed to work the fourth skill into our crowded curriculum with a
minimum of effort. (p. 290)
Unfortunately, writing in a second language (L2) is not this easy to teach or to learn. It is a
complex and time-consuming endeavor (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1987; Flower & Hayes, 1981)
with which instructors at every level struggle. Specific issues related to writing include dealing
with affective barriers on the part of the student, implementing effective instructional
approaches, working within time constraints, giving meaningful feedback and assessing both
process and product (Hedgcock & Lefkowitz, 1992). In addition, especially for L2 contexts,
limited fluency with grammar and vocabulary add even greater challenges. Teaching foreign
language writing remains an unsolved puzzle for most educators.
When considering instructional approaches that may better facilitate the teaching of
writing within the foreign language classroom, there remain many questions to be explored as to
the efficacy of various traditional methods as well as the use of technology (Reichelt, 2001). The
purpose of this study was to examine the effects of technology-enhanced language learning on
students' composition skills in L2 by investigating the differences between university students
who received more traditional instruction in the classroom with no formal grammar computer
practice and students in a technology-enhanced section which included a minimum of 30 minutes
in a lab setting per week with a grammar practice program. The rationale for this study builds on
extant research in the 1) application of the National Standards for Foreign Language Education
(National Standards) to the foreign language curriculum, 2) grammar instruction within second
language acquisition, 3) writing in L1 and foreign language writing, and 4) technology. Thus,
this review of literature examines each of these areas.
Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/. Accessed November 27, 2015.