Fluency-Fluency in writing is defined by ACTFL as a flow in the written language as
perceived by the reader, made possible by clarity of expression, the acceptable ordering of ideas,
use of vocabulary and syntax appropriate to the context, with words, phrases, and idiomatic
expressions that go together by common lexical convention. In this study, the measure of fluency
will be the number of words produced in a specific period of time as well as a total composition
The overview presented here establishes both a context and justification for examining
the effects of computer-based grammar and vocabulary practice on the writing of intermediate-
level Spanish students in the university setting. Communication is a fundamental part of the
human experience, and the study of a foreign language only enriches the opportunities for
communication in a global society that grows more culturally and linguistically diverse each day.
Writing can play a key role in foreign language learning and second language acquisition, and
technology can enhance the writing process and improve the written product. This study sought
to explore the intersection of technology, grammar instruction, foreign language writing, and
second language acquisition, specifically the effects of formal grammar computer practice on
students' composition skills in L2 with the goal of making research-based curricular suggestions
for Spanish foreign language pedagogy. A review of related literature follows in Chapter 2.
Oxford, Raquel Malia Nitta. Effects of Technology-Enhanced Language Learning on Second Language Composition of University-Level Intermediate Spanish Students. Denton, Texas. UNT Digital Library. http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc4688/. Accessed May 1, 2016.